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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 216 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 立法院(1999)。國民教育法部分條文修正案。立法院公報,87(23),71-106。
  2. 吳美華(1996)。國民小學創校初期學校組織特性與校長領導型式之相關研究。 台北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士學位,未出版,台北市。
  3. 吳財順(2004)。國民中小學校長遴選制度之研究—以台北縣與新竹市為例。國立台北師範學院教育政策與管理研究所碩士論文,全國博碩士論文資訊網,092NTPTC576019。
  4. 吳清山(2001)。學校文化。教育月刊,88,110。
  5. 吳清山(2004)。學校組織創新經營理念與策略。教師天地,128,30-44。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 許家銘(2011)。雲林縣國小轉型優質評鑑指標評定重要性與實際達成之差異性研究。虎尾科技大學經營管理研究所在職專班學位論文。2011。1-133。
  2. 方姿文(2014)。浴火重生曙光再現−私立高職轉型職訓機構之個案研究。高雄餐旅大學餐旅教育研究所學位論文。2014。1-107。
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