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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 56 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王露儀 (2003) 重金屬及鹽分對水筆仔苗木生長及生理的影響。國立嘉義大學農學院林業研究所碩士論文。64頁。
  2. 陳吉村 (1993) 重金屬對農業的影響。花蓮區農業專訊6: 8-10。
  3. Caregnato, F. F., C. E. Koller, G. R. MacFarlane and J. C. F. Moreira (2008) The glutathione antioxidant system as a biomarker suite for the assessment of heavy metal exposure and effect and effect in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 1119-1127.
  4. Chiu, C. Y. and C. H. Chou (1991) The distribution and influence of heavy metals in mangrove forests of the Tamshui estuary in Taiwan. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 37(4): 659-669.
  5. De Lacerda, L. D., C. E. V. Carvalho, K. F. Tanizaki, A. R. C. Ovalle and C. E. Rezende (1993) The biogeochemistry and trace metals distribution of mangrove rhizosphere. Biotropica 25(3): 252-257.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張琳婉(2012)。地方產業廢材再利用可能性探討。朝陽科技大學工業設計系碩士班學位論文。2012。1-77。
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