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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 77 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李長晏(2007)。中臺灣跨域治理案例之探討:以大甲溪流域管理為例。《中國地方自治》,第60卷第5期,p16-34。
  2. 洪世雄、陳曉天、葉欣愷(2010),行銷知識管理能力、產品創新對顧客滿意度之影響-以知覺價值為中介變項。《東亞論壇季刊》,第469期。
  3. 張火燦、余月美(2008)。服務品質、顧客滿意與顧客忠誠度關係之研究。《明新學報》,34(1),p127-140。
  4. 蕭至惠、蔡進發、盧信豪(2011)。探討服務品質與顧客滿意度對顧客忠誠度的影響-以信任及關係承諾為中介變數。《商管科技季刊》,12(3)期。
  5. 李佩婷(2004)。《網路銀行服務品質與顧客滿意度之研究》。國立成功大學統計學系研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺南。
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