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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 13 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1、尹鍾奇(1972),實用大地測量學,大眾出版社。
  2. 2、尹鍾奇(1998),最小自乘法平差,國彰出版社。
  3. 3、何維信(2001),測量學,宏泰出版社。
  4. 4、吳駖〈2005〉,MATLAB 程式設計應用實務,文魁資訊股份有限公司。
  5. 5、張世杰(2005),統計學實務—活用 Excel 應用與分析,金禾資訊。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張能軒(2011)。高程誤差對大區域三維及二維坐標轉換精度影響之研究。中興大學土木工程學系所學位論文。2011。1-52。 
  2. 黃春嘉(2016)。利用加權總體最小二乘法建立區域性大地起伏模型-以台中地區為例。中興大學土木工程學系所學位論文。2016。1-79。
  3. 葉漢軍(2017)。利用穩健加權總體最小二乘法建立區域性大地起伏模型-以舊台中市為例。中興大學土木工程學系所學位論文。2017。1-74。
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