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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 75 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王俊傑、陳達仁、黃慕萱(2007)。從專利觀點比較台灣與南韓技術創新能力。政大智慧財產評論,5(2),31-51。
  2. 王柳鋐(2012)。專利引證網路與文字探勘技術整合框架初探。行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫,1-11。
  3. 李慧、師洪波(2011)。專利情報分析在科研項目立項中的應用研究。圖書館學研究,11,90-93。
  4. 李滿祥(2005)。專利技術授權策略研究TFT LCD 光學膜授權個案比較。政大智慧財產評論,3(2),95-117。
  5. 吳彥濬、李璧如(2005)。智慧型運輸系統之專利分析:以臺灣與中國大陸為例。運輸計劃季刊,34(4),575-608。
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