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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 89 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 6. 吳白玫、陳石松、林瑞著、張碧秋、林阿洋、周薰修(1991)。水產罐頭食品重金屬含量調查。藥物食品檢驗局調查研究年報。9:257-266。
  2. 13. 行政院環境保護署(2002)。重金屬檢測方法總則。環署檢字第0910014627號公告。
  3. 19. 洪楚璋、蔡敬弘(1991)。台灣西部近岸海域重金屬之研究。中華民國環境保護學會會誌。14:11-13。
  4. 21. 洪家偉、劉信良、高雅慧(2004)。環境中鉛暴露和慢性腎疾病之惡化關係。腎臟與透析。16:207-212。
  5. 22. 施如佳、陳石松、張美華、邱雅琦、陳怡如、鄭秋真、周薰修(2006)。台灣地區市售貝類重金屬含量分析方法探討及資料之建立。藥物食品檢驗局調查研究年報。24:325-344。
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