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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 93 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳明隆(2007)。《SPSS統計應用學習實務:問卷分析與應用統計》。臺北︰知城數位科技股份有限公司。
  2. 吳萬益、林志成、傅貞夙(2006)。〈領導型態與組織文化對組織承諾與組織績效影響之研究-以臺灣不同國籍製藥廠為例〉。《企業管理學報》,第71期,頁35-76。
  3. 王文輝(2009)。《國軍單位組織文化、領導行為、工作特性與離職傾向之研究組織政治知覺、組織氣候、角色壓力、組織承諾與工作績效關聯性之研究─以國軍A部隊志願士兵為例》。國立臺灣師範大學工業科技教育學系碩士論文,未出版,臺北。
  4. 宋德發(2004)。《臺北市國民小學校長塑造學校組織文化策略之研究》。國立臺北師範學院教育政策與管理研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺北。
  5. 李應宗(2002)。《組織文化與組織分享之研究─以臺北縣國民小學為例》。國立臺北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。未出版,臺北。
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