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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 235 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王元中(1999)。公共圖書館在二十一世紀的角色定位。臺北市立圖書館館訊,16(3),19-22。
  2. 王佩徛、王秋鈴(2015)。學習對話式閱讀對提升家長親子功讀技巧之成效。特殊教育學報,42,1-26。
  3. 石素錦、陳瑞慧(1999)。從認知心理與社會互動談兒童語言發展-從皮亞傑與維高斯基理論談兒童英語學習。課程與教學,2(3),1-22。
  4. 吳可久、邱子恒、林佳蓉(2014)。兒童視覺化資訊檢索介面知識分類架構之初探。國家圖書館館刊,1,79-100。
  5. 吳美美(1996)。在新時空座標中的圖書館功能-談資訊素養教育。圖書館學與資訊科學,22(2),29-52。
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