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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 37 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 4.林灼榮、徐啟升、李志隆,(2002),中華電信市內電話經營效率與影響因子分析,經濟研究,第38卷第2期。
  2. 6.林文聖(2009),製造業之能源效率評估-隨機邊界生產模型之應用,國立台北大學經濟學系碩士論文。
  3. 8.張四立、謝維晃(2009),我國商業與服務業部門能源效率指標之建置與節約能源成效評估,科技發展政策報導。
  4. 9.張石柱、蔡正暉(2009),經濟部科技研究發展專案計畫執行效率之探討-資料包絡分析及分析層級程序法之應用,會計學報,第2卷第1期。
  5. 11.陳正輝、潘德芳(2004),台灣主要柑桔產銷班經營效率之探討,農業試驗所技術服務,第60期。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳韻如(2015)。台灣地區光電產業上市公司經營績效之研究─ DEA模型之應用。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2015。1-286。 
  2. 鄧昌禮(2013)。運用DEA評估台灣石化業中游廠商之經營績效。中正大學經濟系國際經濟研究所學位論文。2013。1-50。
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