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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 181 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 沙依仁(1996)。《高齡學》。臺北:五南。
  2. 江信男、林旻沛、柯慧楨(2005)。〈臺灣地區老人的生理疾病多寡、自覺生理健康、社會支持度與憂鬱嚴重度〉。《臨床心理學刊》,第2卷第1期, 頁11-22。
  3. 吳淑瓊、賴惠玲、江東亮(1994)。〈影響社區老人對護理之家居住意願的因素〉。《中華公共衛生雜誌》,第13卷第5期, 頁388-394。
  4. 吳淑瓊、朱昭美 (1995) 。〈民眾對老人長期照護安排之態度:1994台灣地區社會意向調查之發現〉。《中華衛誌》,第14卷第4期, 頁369-382。
  5. 吳淑瓊、徐慧娟、莊智、張明正(1996)。〈功能評估在估計台灣社區老人長期照護需要之應用〉。《中華衛誌》,第15卷第6期, 頁533-545。
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