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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 148 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 司徒達賢(1999)。《非營利組織的經營管理》。臺北:天下。
  2. 吳 思(2003)。《血酬定律:中國歷史上的生存遊戲》。臺北:究竟。
  3. 翁秀琪(2011)。 《大眾傳播理論與實證》。臺北:三民。
  4. 陳軍諺、陳冠瑜(2008)。《強制汽機車責任險推手人:柯媽媽的故事》。臺北:財團法人文向教育基金會、台壽保險集團、龍邦集團。
  5. 顧忠華(2005)。《解讀社會力 : 臺灣的學習社會與公民社會》。新北:左岸文化。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳慧貞(2015)。公益勸募條例許可制之探討。中興大學法律學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-223。 
  2. 竺學致(2014)。苗栗縣竹南大埔事件危機管理之研究。中興大學國家政策與公共事務研究所學位論文。2014。1-133。
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