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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 158 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳樹華(2009)。圖書館異質資源整合檢索系統之使用者介面評估研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學圖書資訊學研究所,臺北市。
  2. 李宗翰(2009)。數位圖書館資訊系統讀者使用與滿意度之研究:以電子資源整合查詢系統為探討(未出版之碩士論文)。長榮大學資訊管理學系,臺南市。
  3. 林心慧、曾琬婷(2008)。顧客觀點之線上旅遊系統成功模式:整合理性層級理論與心流理論。電子商務學報,10(3),689-714。
  4. 姜義臺(2009)。圖書館電子資源整合檢索系統優使性之研究─以SmartWeaver為例(未出版之碩士論文)。國立中興大學圖書資訊學研究所,臺中市。
  5. 姜義臺(2010)。圖書館電子資源整合檢索系統優使性之研究-以靜宜大學為例。圖書與資訊學刊,75,25-36。
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