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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 74 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁信中(2009)。芬蘭中學生PISA科學成就優異表現及其相關因素之探討:2007歐洲科學教育學術參訪反思。科學教育月刊,第316期,2-19。
  2. 王彥稀(2010)。參與乎?投入乎?介入乎?國民中學家長參與學校教育之個案研究(碩士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學,未出版,臺北。
  3. 李宜恭(2007)。宜蘭縣國民中學家長參與學校事務之研究(碩士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學,未出版,臺北。
  4. 李君柔、王美娟(2013)。個人特質、家庭環境、教師教學與學校背景對八年級學生數學成就之影響。臺北市立教育大學學報,第44卷第1期,51-84。
  5. 林碧珍、蔡文煥(2005)。TIMSS 2003臺灣國小四年級學生的數學成就及其相關因素之探討。科學教育月刊,第285期,2-38。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳玉芳(2017)。家庭社經背景與自信心對科學成績的影響- 以 TIMSS 2015台灣四年級學生為例。中興大學教師專業發展研究所學位論文。2017。1-69。
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