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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 81 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 許士軍 (1998)。《管理學》。臺北:東華。
  2. 黃惠惠 (2002)。《情緒與壓力管理》。臺北:張老師文化。
  3. 池進通、李鴻文、陳芬儀(2008)。〈五大人格特質與工作績效關係之研究〉。 《經營管理論壇》,Vol.4, No2,2008,頁1-9。
  4. 董泓志 (2003)。〈學術競爭、成本控制與少子化:「血汗大學」的三重共構評述〉。《臺灣教育評論月刊》,第二卷 第七期,2013年2月,頁37-40。
  5. 林允成(2013)。《救生員人格特質、工作壓力與職涯發展滿意度之相關研究》。國立嘉義大學師範學院體育與健康休閒學系碩士論文,未出版,嘉義。
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