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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 113 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 孫本初(2006)。《公共管理》。臺北:智勝文化。
  2. 呂育誠(2004)。〈中央與地方夥伴關係的省思與展望〉。《中國行政》,第75期,29- 56。
  3. 林火木(2003)。〈學校行政、教師會與「家長會」組織關係之探析〉。《學校行政雙月刊》,第26期,頁128-143。
  4. 葉志傑、謝傳崇(2013)。〈國民中學校長關係領導、協力治理與關係績效之研究〉。《新竹教育大學教育學報》,第30卷第2期,頁25-26。
  5. 李長晏、林煥笙(2008),〈中央與地方協力夥伴關係之分析-以臺中縣潭子段旱溪整治工程為例〉,TASPAA夥伴關係與永續發展國際學術研討會,東海大學行政管理暨政策學系主辦,臺中(2008?5月25日)。
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