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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 51 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 行政院農業委員會(2012)。政府已實施多項農業補助 將採取更積極作法因應國際環境變化。新聞與公告。
  2. 行政院農業委員會農糧署2015年年報(2016)。調整耕作制度活化農地,20-21。行政院農業委員會農糧署編印。
  3. 李應坼、戴劍鋒、李婕寧、彭克仲(2016)。臺灣荔枝產業經營績效分析。台灣農學會報17(2),192-214。
  4. 林宜璇( 2010)。專業農民參與小地主大佃農計畫之財務評估(未出版之碩士論文)。國立成功大學都市計劃研究所。
  5. 林昆立、黃玉麗(2014)。收益多角化對銀行是光明面還是黑暗面? 全球實證。管理評論, 33(3), 23-51。
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