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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 177 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王多智(1993)。國小美勞科教師專業能力之研究。國立臺灣師範大學工藝教育研究所碩士論文,臺北。
  2. 王長河(2005)。中華民國軍事學門建構策略之研究。國立臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班碩士論文,臺北。
  3. 江文雄(1999)。技術及職業教育概論。臺北:師大書苑。
  4. 何福田、羅瑞玉(1996),教育改革與教師專業化。載於中華民國師範教育學會主編,教育專業(頁1-30)。臺北:師大書苑。
  5. 余永章著,陳偉華譯(2007)。從他山之石論述維護國家安全與全民國防之重要性。國防雜誌,21(6),17-22。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃民權(2012)。高中職學生修習「全民國防教育科」課程意見調查之研究--以大台北地區為例。臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-117。
  2. 黃淑敬(2012)。臺北市高中職學生對全民國防教育教科書滿意度之研究。臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-106。
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