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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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  1. 6. Chunting Mi, Gordon R. Slemon, and Richard Bonert, “Modeling of Iron Losses of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors,” IEEE Transactions On Industry Applications, Vol. 39, No. 3, May/June 2003.
  2. 7. Katsumi Yamazaki, Yu Fukushima, and Makoto Sato Dept, “Loss Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motors with Concentrated Windings-Variation of Magnet Eddy Current Loss Due to Stator and Rotor Shapes, ” Electronics and Computer Engineering Chiba Institute of Technology Narashino, Japan.
  3. 8. Katsumi Yamazaki, and Yoshiaki Seto, “Iron Loss Analysis of Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors- Variation of Main Loss Factors Due to Driving Condition,” Ieee Transactions On Industry Applications, Vol. 42, No. 4, July/August 2006.
  4. 10. William R. Finley, and Mark M. Hodowanec, “Selection of Copper vs. Aluminum Rotors for Induction Motors,” Copyright material IEEE, Paper No. PCIC-2000-19.
  5. 11. Gareth Gilson, Dr. SJ Pickering, Dr. DB Hann, and Dr. C. Gerada, “Analysis of the End Winding Heat Transfer variation with Altitude in Electric Motors,” 2009 IEEE, 978-1-4244-4649-0/09/.
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