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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 60 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [4] 李玲玲、楊育昌,「台灣水資源政策之探討」,節約用水季刊,第二十八期,2002,第1-3頁。
  2. [7] 鄭宇宏,鋼材裁切加工中心在中國的行銷策略-以P公司為例,碩士論文,國立中央大學管理學院高階主管企管碩士班,中壢,2011。
  3. [8] 莊志源,台灣中小尺寸液晶面板產業經營策略分析-以W公司個案為例,碩士論文,國立中興大學高階經理人碩士在職專班,台中,2009。
  4. [9] 傅彥海,手機機殼廠商競爭策略之個案分析-以W公司為例,碩士論文,國立中央大學管理學院高階主管企管碩士班,中壢,2011。
  5. [10] 劉瑞清,創新產品開發及競爭策略研究-以A公司為例,碩士論文,國立清華大學高階經營管理碩士班,新竹,2010。
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