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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 96 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 公務人員訓練進修辦法施行細則(2002年7月16日)。
  2. 王瑤芬、林美玲(2007)。國際觀光旅館飲務人員專業能力之研究-以調酒員為例。餐旅暨家政學刊,4(3),269-292。
  3. 王維進、林宜君(2012)。建構消防人員所應具備專業知識技能之指標-以宜蘭縣基層消防人員為例。蘭陽學報,11,1-14。
  4. 李友錚、李美蘭(2009)。科技大學科技管理系學生基本能力調查分析之研究。中華管理學報,10(3),45-70。
  5. 林保源、陳昱蓉、楊晶詒、陳慧嬨、湯乃燕(2012)。臺灣休閒產業專業能力需求指標建構之研究。休閒觀光與運動健康學報,2(2),53-68。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 薛竹婷(2015)。檔案管理人員核心職能結合教育訓練之研究。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-161。
  2. 趙英伶(2016)。學校人事人員訓練需求評估之研究-臺北市立學校為例。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2016。1-212。
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