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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 43 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] 李亮穎,結合模糊層級分析與模糊資料包絡法於績效評估研究—以T公司供應商評選為例,台北科技大學工業工程與管理研究所,台北,2006。
  2. [2] 林怡君,整合分析網路程序法與資料包絡法於綠色供應商評選之研究,台北科技大學工業工程與管理研究所,台北,2008。
  3. [3] 高強,黃旭男,Toshiyuki Sueyoshi ,管理績效評估—資料包絡法,台北市:華泰文化事業股份有限公司,2003, pp. 3。
  4. [5] Andersen, P. and Petersen, N.C., “A procedure for ranking efficiency units in data envelopment analysis,” Management Science, vol. 39, 1993, pp. 1261-1264.
  5. [6] Bhutta, K.S. and Huq, F., “Supplier selection problem: a comparison of the total cost of ownership and analytic hierarchy process approaches,” Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 7, no. 3, 2002, pp. 126-135.
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