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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 66 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 湯維玲、顏慶祥、李鴻章(民90),臺灣地區中小學教師在職進修制度研究-現況與問題調查。載於楊深坑主編:各國中小學教師在職進修制度比較研究(頁279-325)。臺北:揚智。
    2. 舒緒緯(民90),臺灣地區中小學教師在職進修制度之沿革。載於楊深坑主編:各國中小學教師在職進修制度比較研究(頁221-278)。臺北:揚智。
    3. 楊深坑、楊銀興、周蓮清、黃淑玲、黃嘉莉(民91),我國中小學教師在職進修制度規劃之研究。載於潘慧玲主編:教育改革的未來(頁323-371)。臺北:高等。
    4. 楊豪森(民91),高職教育面臨的衝擊。載於教育部技術及職業教育司出版:技術及職業教育雙月刊,69,48-49。
    5. Benny, H. W. (2002). Same assessment, different Practice: Professional consciousness as a determinant of teachers’ practice in a school-based assessment scheme [Electronic version]. Journal of Assessment in Education, 9 (1), 97-117.
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