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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 83 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Allan, J. A., “Virtual water: a strategic resource. Global solutions to regional deficits,” Ground Water, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 545-546, 1998.
  2. Alsema, E. A., “Energy pay-back time and CO2 emissions of PV systems,” Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 17-25, 2000.
  3. Battisti, R., Tripanagnostopoulos, Y., Souliotis, M. and Corrado, A., “Energy, cost and LCA results of PV and hybrid PV/T solar systems,” Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 235-250, 2005.
  4. Bing, Y., Guosheng, C., Lijun, L. and Peng, Y., “Research and Development of Carbon Footprint Analysis In Hunan Province,” Energy Procedia, vol. 5, pp. 1210-1217, 2011.
  5. BSI, PAS 2050, “Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services,” London, UK, 2011.
Times Cited (5) 〈TOP〉
  1. 唐維(2013)。鮮乳產品碳足跡的計算及改善策略之研究。臺灣大學獸醫學研究所學位論文。2013。1-113。 
  2. 黃翊軒(2013)。應用水足跡分析科學園區用水之研究。成功大學資源工程學系學位論文。2013。1-110。
  3. 黄裕德(2013)。水足跡盤查分析與節水策略-以某印刷電路板軟板廠為例。中央大學環境工程研究所學位論文。2013。1-71。
  4. 黃泳禎(2014)。PET塑膠回收再利用之環境足跡探討。臺北大學自然資訊與環境管理研究所學位論文。2014。1-92。
  5. 郭建宏(2014)。稀土資源回收技術之環境衝擊與碳足跡評估-以螢光粉回收釔、銪為例。臺北科技大學環境工程與管理研究所學位論文。2014。1-108。
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