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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 36 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [4] 余文德、蔡宜靜,「資料包絡分析法應用於評估知識管理效率之初步探討」,中華技術–工程實務,第70期,2006年,第80-85頁。
  2. [7] 李正文、姜玉苹,「供應鏈管理績效評估模式之建構-以筆記型電腦產業為例」,東吳經濟商學學報,第51期,2005年,第37-70頁。
  3. [9] 蘇進祿,以資料包絡分析法評估鋼鐵產業經營績效之研究,碩士論文,國立成功大學管理學院高階管理碩士在職專班,台南,2004。
  4. [11] 劉祥熹、朱珮宏,「台灣地區生技產業經營績效之研究:DEA方法與Malmquist生產力指數之應用」,產業論壇,第3期,2003年,第63-99頁。
  5. [12] 洪海玲,以資料包絡分析法作製造業之營運效率分析,碩士論文,國立成功大學工業管理研究所,台南,2002。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 石學舉(2008)。影響創新產品採用因素之探討-以微軟智慧型手機為例。崑山科技大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2008。1-62。
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