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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 66 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] 李青松、劉德彥,銀髮族參與旅遊動機與阻礙之回顧研究,台北: 品度股份有限公司發行,2011。
  2. [4] 林金定、嚴嘉楓、陳美花,「質性研究方法:訪談模式與實施步驟分析」,身心障礙研究,第3卷,第2期,2005。
  3. [9] 簡俊成、方婷婷,「虛擬社群商業化之紮根理論研究」,管理評論,第24卷,第3期,2005。
  4. [17] 陳仲鉉,比較單純酒癮、單純焦慮與焦慮合併酒癮患者在行為激發/行為抑制系統與酒精效果預期上之差異,碩士論文,成功大學醫學院行為醫學研究所,台南,2004。
  5. [21] 張瑜容,前銀髮族生活型態與國外旅遊行為及動機之研究,碩士論文,朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系,台中市,2010。
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