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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 95 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何福田、羅瑞玉(民81)。教育改革與教師專業化。載於中華民國師範教育學會主編:教育專業。台北:師大書苑。
  2. 李杏煖(民88)。地方縣市教師研習中心組織與功能之研究--以新竹縣教師研習中心為例。國立臺北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺北。
  3. 沈姍姍(民89)。教師專業成長的誘因與動力—自制度面分析。學校行政論壇第五次研討會。台北:中華民國學校行政研究學會。
  4. 林佳範(民91)。士大夫、公務員到勞動者或專業者?淺論教師的身分認同與現代民主憲政理念。師友,425,1-3。臺中:師友月刊雜誌社。
  5. 姜添輝(民89)。論教師專業、社會控制與保守文化。教育與社會研究,創刊號,1-24。嘉義:南華大學教育社會學研究所暨社會學研究所。
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