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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 33 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. Banker, R. D., "Estimating most productive scale size using data envelopment analysis, " European Journal of Operational Research, Vol.17, 1984,pp.35-44.
  2. 2. Banker, R.D., Charnes, A., and Cooper, W.W., "Some models for estimating technical and scale inefficiencies in data envelopment analysis," Management Science, Vol.30, 1984, pp.1078-1092.
  3. 3. Charnes, A., Clark, Charles T., Cooper, W.W., and Golany, Boaz, "A developmental study of Data Envelopment Analysis in measuring the efficiency of maintenance units in the U.S. air forces," Annuals of Operation Research, Vol. 2, 1985,pp.95-112.
  4. 7. Charnes, A., Cooper, W. W., Sun, D. B., and Huang, Z. M., "Polyhedral cone-ratio DEA models with an illustrative applivation to large commercial banks," Journal of Econometrics, Vol.46, 1990,pp.73-91.
  5. 8. Farrell, M. J., "The measurement of productive efficiency," Journal of Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 120, No. 3, 1957, pp.253-290.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 江月青(2015)。台灣商業銀行經營績效趨勢分析。淡江大學國際行銷碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-46。 
  2. 連國利(2013)。資料包絡分析法在我國工業電腦經營績效評估之應用與分析。臺北科技大學管理學院經營管理EMBA專班學位論文。2013。1-49。 
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