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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 84 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何善台(1997). 如何處理疼痛. 聲洋防癌之聲, 79, 34-35.
  2. 邱泰源(1997). 癌症末期疼痛控制. 台灣醫學, 1(2), 198-207.
  3. 林玉娟(1997).癌症疼痛評估.護理新象,7(4)9-29.
  4. 台北:財團法人大地之愛癌症會. 張春興(1995).張氏心理學辭典.台北:東華 趙可式(1997).台灣癌症末期病患對善終意義的體認.護理雜誌,44(1),48-55.
  5. 蔡麗雲、顧乃平(1995).癌痛病患的心理困擾、疼痛因應策略及因素之探討.國防醫學院護理研究所碩士論文. 蔡麗雲、顧乃平 (1997).癌痛病患的疼痛因應策略及相關因素之探討. 護理研究, 5(2), 137-147.
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林家民(2017)。森林療癒對中高齡與高齡者健康效益之研究。臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學研究所學位論文。2017。1-91。 
  2. 謝佩芸(2010)。頭頸部癌症病人疼痛特質與其因應策略之探討。臺灣大學護理學研究所學位論文。2010。1-66。 
  3. 封威蓮(2004)。住院癌症病人營養狀況之探討。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2004。1-117。
  4. 施素梅(2004)。評估麻醉前衛教對全身麻醉脊椎手術患者之成效探討。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2004。1-104。
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