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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 63 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 參考資料 中文部份 于漱(民80). 台灣北部地區不同學制之應屆畢業護生之心理需求、對護理的看法與護理能力之比較研究。 國防護理研究所碩士論文。 王秀春.林月玲.李碧霞(民86). 台北市某市立醫院護理人員離職原因之探討. 護理新象, 7(2), 85-100。
  2. 許士軍(民71). 管理學. 台北:南山堂。 國泰綜合醫院(民86). 86年護理人員離職率統計年報表. 台北:國泰綜合醫院,護理部。 湯玉英(民83). 如何降低護理人員的離職率. 護理雜誌, 41(2),83-87。
  3. 曾煥棠(民85). 護理人員的職業社會化. 護理雜誌, 43(4), 79-84。
  4. 蔡淑妙(民86). 護理人員生涯發展及其與留任意願相關性之研究.台北醫學院護理研究所碩士學位論文。 劉雪娥(民75). 某教學醫院護理人員工作滿足程度之探討. 護理雜誌, 33(1), 75-83。
  5. Alspach, J. G. (1988). The shortage of critical care nurses: readership survey results. Critical Care Nurse, 8(3), 14-21.
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