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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 89 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 毛新春、蔣立琦(民85)?手術後兒童對疼痛的因應策略?護理研究,4(3),208-218。
  2. 林佳靜、 陳淑如、謝麗鳳(民86)? 疼痛護理?護理雜誌,44(1),37-47。
  3. 翁麗雀、鄭綺(民85)?開腹手術病人止痛劑要求時疼痛程度及相關因素之探討?長庚護理,7(1),45-55。
  4. 陳淑如、林佳靜、鄭綺、何善台(民87)?探討手術後病人對疼痛護理及疼痛控制的滿意度及其影響因素?護理研究,6(6),475-487。
  5. 謝麗鳳、林佳靜、賴裕和、鄒宗山(民87)?癌症家屬對止痛劑的擔心與病人疼痛控制的相關性?護理研究,6 (4),327-337。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李梅琛(2000)。胃部手術後病患使用疼痛因應策略及其影響因素探討。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2000。1-99。
  2. 吳名珠(2002)。肺部手術病患術後急性期疼痛經驗之探討。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2002。1-90。
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