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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 66 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 余廣亮(1994)?癌症病患疼痛治療行為的研究?未發表碩士論文,高雄:高雄醫學院。 行政院衛生署編訂(1998)?安寧療護疼痛處置指引。 吳秉恩(1993)?決策過程與資訊?於吳秉恩編著,組織行為學(pp.324-329)?台北:華泰。
  2. 林玉娟(1997)?癌症疼痛評估?護理新象,7(4),9-29。
  3. 林佳靜(1996)?癌症疼痛處理的護理倫理?護理雜誌,43(1),36-39。
  4. 蔡麗雲(1995)?癌症病患的心理困擾、疼痛因應策略及其因素探討. 未發表碩士論文,台北:國防醫學院。 蔣蓉蓉 (1991)?癌症病房護理人員對疼痛處理的知識、態度、行為及需求之探討. 未發表碩士論文,台北:國立台灣大學。 謝麗鳳 (1997)?家屬對止痛劑的擔心與癌症病人疼痛控制的相關性. 未發表碩士論文,台北:台北醫學院。 藍先元、李明濱(1992)?癌症疼痛治療學?當代醫學,19(2),162-166。
  5. 顧乃平(1996) ?治療癌症疼痛的倫理考量?護理雜誌,43(1),29-35。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林雅萍(2002)。癌痛病患與護理人員對關懷照護行為之評量: 與疼痛程度之相關。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2002。1-122。
  2. 龔美珍(2008)。建立護理人員疼痛處理之模式-以桃園縣某醫院為例。元智大學管理研究所學位論文。2008。1-82。
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