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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 92 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 中文部份 行政院衛生署 (2000)•中華民國八十六年癌症登記報告•行政院衛生署編印。 李梅琛、賴裕和、陳美伶、劉淑娟 (2001)?病患疼痛特質與疼痛信念對手術後使用止痛藥物之影響?護理雜誌,48(1),49-58。
  2. 李梅琛 (2000) ?胃部手術後病患使用疼痛因應策略及其影響因素探討?私立臺北醫學院護理研究所碩士論文。 沈振庭、何善台 (1994)?癌症疼痛?國防醫學, 18(3),187-191。
  3. 林麗英 (2002)?術前疼痛護理對腹部手術個案術前焦慮、認知與術後疼痛之成效?未發表之碩士論文,高雄:私立醫高雄學大學護理研究所。 林佳靜、陳淑如、謝麗鳳 (1997)?疼痛護理?護理雜誌,44(1),37-47。
  4. 邱麗蓮 (1999)?與乳癌共生婦女在生命意義探索上之現象學研究?護理研究,7(2),119-127。
  5. 卓麗鳳 (1999)?家屬對手術後病患使用止痛藥的擔心與病患疼痛控制的相關性?未發表之碩士論文,臺北:私立臺北醫學院護理研究所。 徐蕙妮 (1995) ?癌症病人之手術護理?護理雜誌, 42(4),43-48。
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