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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 70 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. Adler, F.J., The Value Concept In Sociology Theory. N.Y.:Prentice-Hall, 1956.
  2. 2. Adler, N.J., “Cross-cultural Management Research: The Ostrich and the Trend,” Academy of management Review.8, p.2, 1983.
  3. 3. Adler, N.J., International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1986.
  4. 4. Armstrong, Robert W., “The relationship between culture and perception of ethical problems in international marketing,” Journal of Business Ethics Dordrecht. 15(11), pp.1199-1208, 1996.
  5. 5. Clark, T., “International Marketing and National Character: A Culture-Free Dimensions of Culture,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.18, pp.143-164, 1990.
Times Cited (10) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何美慧(2006)。外籍專業人才海外適應之研究---以在台外商軌道運輸業跨國勞動派遣人員為例。淡江大學管理科學研究所企業經營碩士在職專班學位論文。2006。1-57。 
  2. 顧忠興(2007)。外籍勞工之文化差異分析與管理實務發展-跨文化觀點研究。元智大學管理研究所學位論文。2007。1-114。 
  3. 謝昆璋(2006)。以跨文化價值觀觀點探討海峽兩岸品質系統差異化之研究。元智大學工業工程與管理學系學位論文。2006。1-70。 
  4. 游翔閔(2007)。我國製造業外籍勞工所需跨文化教育訓練內涵之研究。臺灣師範大學工業科技教育學系學位論文。2007。1-131。
  5. 王福星(2008)。台灣人力仲介業引進泰國勞工之研究。中興大學國際政治研究所學位論文。2008。1-159。
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