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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 60 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. Al-Shammari, M., Optimization modeling for estimating and enhancing relative efficiency with application to industrial companies, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 115, 1999, 488-496.
  2. 2. Ali, A. I., Data envelopment analysis: computational issues, Computer, Environment and Urban Systems, Vol. 14, 1990, 157-165.
  3. 3. Ali, A. I., C. S. Lerme and L. M. Seiford, Components of efficiency evaluation in data envelopment analysis, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 80, 1995, 462-473.
  4. 4. Ali, A. I., and L. M. Seiford, Translation invariance in data envelopment analysis, Operations Research Letters, Vol. 9, 1990, 403-405.
  5. 5. Avkiran, N. K., The evidence on efficiency gains: the role of mergers and the benefits to the public, Journal of Bank & Finance, Vol. 23, 1999, 991-1013.
Times Cited (20) 〈TOP〉
  1. 蔡佩穎(2008)。手機產業上游廠商經營效率個案分析-以某製造商為例。淡江大學會計學系碩士班學位論文。2008。1-73。 
  2. 許惠如(2007)。應用資料包絡分析法於台灣智慧型手機產業經營績效評估。臺北科技大學工業工程與管理系碩士班學位論文。2007。1-68。 
  3. 馮秀鳳(2002)。半導體產業經營效率之研究 —資料包絡分析法之應用。中原大學會計研究所學位論文。2002。1-86。 
  4. 黃小芬(2007)。移轉訂價對企業經營績效之影響-以投資大陸之台商為例。中原大學國際貿易研究所學位論文。2007。1-103。 
  5. 陳毓儒(2012)。應用資料包絡分析法於中國大陸電源供應器廠商之績效評估與改善。長榮大學國際企業學系(所)學位論文。2012。1-81。 
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