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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 43 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Chen, C. C. & Hernon, P. (1982). Information Seeking:Assessing and Anticipating User Needs. New York:Neal-Schuman.
  2. Choo, C. W. & Detlor, B. & Turnbull, D. (1999). Information seeking on the Web — An integrated model of browsing and searching. Contributed paper of 1999 ASIS annual meeting, 9-16.
  3. Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. (1987). London:Collins.
  4. Derr, R. L. (1983). A Conceptual Analysis of Information Needs. Information Processing & Management, 19: 273-8.
  5. Ellis, D. (1989). A behavioural approach to information retrieval design. Journal of Documentation, 45:3, 171-212.
Times Cited (7) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳怡祁(2012)。網路探索環境中合作學習對後設認知之影響。淡江大學教育科技學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2012。1-175。 
  2. 強美玟(2013)。從臺中市在學青少年的角度探討公共圖書館青少年服務與專屬空間。中興大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文。2013。1-184。 
  3. 卓淑玲(2011)。從小組合作撰寫小論文歷程探討高中生 之資訊需求和資訊尋求行為。中興大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文。2011。1-155。 
  4. 陳思萍(2006)。影響部落格沉浸理論的消費者動機模式之探討。元智大學企業管理學系學位論文。2006。1-61。
  5. 周雅芬(2006)。探究學習環與鷹架輔助學習單對八年級學生線上探究行為之影響。臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所在職進修碩士班學位論文。2006。1-150。
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