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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 49 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 11.徐基生、李宗耀、史欽泰、洪志祥、虞孝成與曾國雄(2003),「運用資料包絡分析法評量工業技術研究院研發組織之研發績效」,管理評論,第二十二卷,第二期,頁25-53。
  2. 12.張世其,林哲鵬,盧孟欣(2007),「台灣TFT-LCD 產業經營效率動態分析之研究」,臺灣企業績效學刊,第一卷,第一期,頁27-52。
  3. 14.蔡佳惠(2007),「從管理面建構網球選手績效評估之指標」,大專體育學刊,第九卷,第二期,頁27-38。
  4. 7. 馮秀鳳(2002),「半導體產業經營效率之研究:資料包絡分析法之應用」,中原大學會計學系碩士論文。
  5. 15.柏謙基(2003),「由供應鏈觀點探討台灣聚酯加工絲業之採購準則」,國立成功大學管理學院碩士論文。
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