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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 155 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 石淑惠(1997)。〈公共圖書館義工個人特質、參與動機與工作滿意度之研究〉。《教育資料與圖書館學》,第三十四期,第四卷,頁422-450。
  2. 李弘暉(1997)。〈團隊管理〉。《中國行政評論》,第六期,第二卷,頁73-86。台北:行政院。
  3. 莊宜佳(2001)。《影響北市社區健康營造志工推行健康促進活動成效相關因素之探討》。台北:私立台北醫學院護理學研究所碩士論文。
  4.  陳玉娟(2000)。《團隊管理及其在國民中小學運用之研究》。台北:國立台灣師範大學教育研究所碩士論文。
  5. 陳金貴(1994)。《美國非營利事業組織的人力資源管理》。台北:瑞興出版社。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李貴林(2012)。團隊管理與團隊效能關係之研究- 以桃園縣國際同濟會各分會為例。元智大學管理碩士在職專班學位論文。2012。1-72。
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