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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 30 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.光電科技工業協進會(2010),《2009~2010年全球光電市場與台灣光電產業總論》,13-38。
  2. 3.洪秀婉、林美惠、王安邦(2008),「全球網路零售公司經營績效之研究」,《電子商務學報》,第10卷第2期,359-378。
  3. 1.Banker, R.D., Charnes, A., and Cooper W.W.(1984), “Some models for estimating technical and scale inefficiencies in data envelopment analysis,” Management Science, Vol.30, 1078-1092.
  4. 3.Brockett, P. L. and Golany, B.(1996), “Using rank statictic for determing programmatic efficiency differences in data envelopment analysis,” Management Science, Vol.42, 467-472.
  5. 5.Cristina, A. B., Sten, A. T., and Joaquina, L.(2004), “Fundamental analysis of stocks by Two-Stage DEA,” Managerial and Decision Economics, Vol.25, 231-241.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳毓儒(2012)。應用資料包絡分析法於中國大陸電源供應器廠商之績效評估與改善。長榮大學國際企業學系(所)學位論文。2012。1-81。 
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