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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 60 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [9] 梁金都,「國小代課教師文化之研究」,屏東教育大學學報,第三十四期,頁1-34,2010年。
  2. [14] 王怡舜等著,「電子商務之服務品質衡量模式—以數位行銷為例」,中華管理學報,第三卷第三期,第75-94頁,民國91年。
  3. [19] 翁崇雄,「期望服務與服務績效影響服務品質評量之研究」,台大管理論叢, 第九卷第一期,頁153-176,1998。
  4. [28] 陳秀江,「家長期望學校服務品質與滿意度之調查研究:以桃園縣國民小學為例」,元智大學,碩士論文,民國93年。
  5. [29] 詹前隆、江俊毅、洪昆廷,「使用者組織內部的服務品質缺口模型之驗證-以資訊系統服務需求為例」,資訊管理學報,第十六卷,民國九十八年。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉寶珠(2012)。護理人員臨床工作所面臨的倫理困擾及其相關因素探討。中國醫藥大學護理學系碩士班學位論文。2012。1-84。 
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