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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 71 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2.王麗凱(2009),「台灣IPTV服務之差異化指標及策略之研究」,碩士論文,臺灣師範大學傳播研究所。
  2. 3.石耀麟(2010),「以資源基礎理論探討國內 3C 通路賣場之競爭優勢及經營策略」,碩士論文,交通大學管理學院碩士在職專班經營管理組。
  3. 4.朱南勳、李建勳、鍾曉君、曾瀚葦、陳純郁(2011),《全球主要國家IPTV發展政策暨現況分析》,台北市:財團法人資訊工業策進會產業情報研究所 (MIC) 。
  4. 6.吳家豪(2010),「電信營運商經營IPTV之資源統治策略分析-以交易成本理論之觀點」,碩士論文,臺灣師範大學大眾傳播研究所。
  5. 7.李佳純(2001),「以資源基礎理論探討持久競爭優勢形成之因素-以『ePaper 電子報聯盟』為例」,《傳播與管理研究》,1(1),1-29。
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