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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 36 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 李仲彬、陳敦源、黃東益與蕭乃沂(2008)。網路投票可以提昇投票率嗎?-以政治大學學生會網路投票爲例。台灣民主季刊。5(3)。1-32。
  2. 3. 陳敦源、李仲彬、黃東益(2007)。應用資訊通訊科技可以改善「公眾接觸」嗎?台灣個案的分析。東吳政治學報。25(3)。51-92。
  3. 7. 楊婉瑩(2007)。政治參與的性別差異,選舉研究,14(2),53-94。
  4. 8. 楊婉瑩、劉嘉葳(2006)。探索型別差距的不同形態─以台灣選民政黨認同為例,東吳政治學報,23:115-156。
  5. 9. 鄭德興(2010)。建構公民社會及參與式民主─台灣與捷克之個案研究。「預見下一個台灣社會?」台灣社會學年會暨國科會專題研究成果發表會991204
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