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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 192 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 6. 石淑惠(1997),「公共圖書館義工個人特質、參與動機與工作滿意度之研究」。《教育資料與圖書館學》,第三十四期,第四卷,422-450。
  2. 19. 余嬪(1999),《休閒有喜》。 高雄市 : 國立高雄師範大學成人教育研究所。
  3. 43. 馬慧君、施教裕(1998) ,「志願服務工作者參與類型之初探--以埔里五個團體的志工為例」。《社會政策與社會工作學刊》。 2:1。頁157-193。
  4. 55. 陳藑瑛(2005)「中高齡者再就業經驗之探索」。元智大學企業管理學系碩士論文。
  5. 66. 陳建松 (2003),「志願服務整合模式建立之研究-以桃園縣為例」。元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 賴怡伶(2015)。高齡志工榮譽退休制度可行性評估~ 以戴德森醫療財團法人嘉義基督教醫院為例。中正大學社會福利學系學位論文。2015。1-215。
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