Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 72 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 參考文獻
  2. 一、中文部分
  3. 王秀紅、陳秀勤(1995)•無望感之概說•醫學繼續教育,5(3),343-347。
  4. 王雅容(2002)•白血病患者的希望、憂鬱與生活品質之相關性探討•未發表的碩士論文,台北:國立台北護理學院。
  5. 王麗雲(2002)•等待心臟移植患者自我照顧行為、希望與社會支持之相關性探討•未發表的碩士論文,台北:台北醫學院。
Times Cited (5) 〈TOP〉
  1. 蔡宏修(2015)。國中學生希望感、社會支持與自尊關係之研究-以桃園市為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2015。1-231。 
  2. 王潔媛(2016)。外籍看護工在台灣私立小型長期照顧機構之勞動經驗及社會融合。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2016。1-323。 
  3. 曾建寧(2014)。多面向認知訓練對改善機構老人認知功能之成效。臺灣大學護理學研究所學位論文。2014。1-233。 
  4. 王珊瑜(2007)。台北市小型安養護機構老人認知功能之探討: 簡易智能狀態量表(MMSE)之運用。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2007。1-127。 
  5. 黃世芳(2009)。社會支持對台灣高齡者參與休閒活動之影響。成功大學老年學研究所學位論文。2009。1-89。
Altmetrics 〈TOP〉
E-mail :
When an article is available to download, a notice will be sent to your mailbox address.
E-mail :