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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 82 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1 Budhia, S., Mikyas, Y., Tang, M. & Badamgarav, E. Osteoporotic fractures: a systematic review of U.S. healthcare costs and resource utilization. PharmacoEconomics 30, 147-170, doi:10.2165/11596880-000000000-00000 (2012).
  2. 2 Heinemann, D. F. Osteoporosis. An overview of the National Osteoporosis Foundation clinical practice guide. Geriatrics 55, 31-36; quiz 39 (2000).
  3. 3 Lin YC, P. W. Bone mineral density in adults in Taiwan: results of the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2005-2008. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 20, 283-291, doi: (2011).
  4. 5 Lin TC, Y. C., Yang YH, Lin SJ. Alendronate adherence and its impact on hip-fracture risk in patients with established osteoporosis in Taiwan. Clin Pharmacology and Therapeutics 90, 109-116 (2011).
  5. 6 Shao CJ, H. Y., Tsai CH, Lai KA. A nationwide seven-year trend of hip fractures in the elderly population of Taiwan. Bone 44, 125-129 (2009).
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉曉菁(2013)。以紮根理論探討中醫師使用中草藥治療癌症末期病人的理念與原則。成功大學護理學系學位論文。2013。1-112。 
  2. 江順楠(2012)。當代台灣社會健康飲食知識初探。清華大學社會學研究所學位論文。2012。1-95。
  3. 張心怡(2017)。不同醫病角色對輔助與替代療法認知差異之探討。中山醫學大學健康餐飲暨產業管理學系碩士班學位論文。2017。1-90。
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