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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 123 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Aihara, Y. , Minai, J., Kikuchi, Y., Aoyama, A.,Shimanouchi, S., (2009). Cognition of social capital in older Japanese men and women. Source Journal of Aging & Health. 21(8):1083-97.
  2. Alavinia, S.M., Burdorf, A. (2008). Unemployment and retirement and ill-health:a cross-sectional analysis across European countries.In Arch Occup Environ Health; 82(1):39-45.
  3. Bamia, C, Trichopoulou, A. (2007). Age at retirement and mortality in a general population sample: the Greek EPIC Study. Am J Epidemiol,167(5: 561-569.
  4. Barrett, A. E. (1999). Social support and life satisfaction among the never married: Examining the effects of age. Research on Aging, 21(1): 46-72.
  5. Berkman, L.F. (2000). Which influences cognitive function : liveing alone or being alone? Lancet, 355 (9212),1291-1292.
Times Cited (8) 〈TOP〉
  1. 羅鈺群(2009)。不同課後休閒活動類型對不同教學法之多媒體教材在學習成效上的分析-以國二自然科「莫耳概念」為例。交通大學理學院科技與數位學習學程學位論文。2009。1-68。 
  2. 許郁翎(2016)。從社會資本觀點看公共圖書館服務對中高齡者之影響。臺灣大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文。2016。1-249。 
  3. 陳詠榆(2013)。高齡者的健康狀態與社會資本相關性。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2013。1-85。 
  4. 鄭于沛(Yu-Pei Cheng);黃馨慧(Hsin-Hui Huang)(2013)。從國小學童親子部落格網誌初探其家庭休閒生活。長庚科技學刊。(18)。115-129。 
  5. 李錦東(2008)。台中縣外埔鄉老農休閒偏好與阻礙。亞洲大學休閒與遊憩管理學系碩士班學位論文。2008。1-67。
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