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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 37 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 7. 張德儀、 黃旭男(2006)。台灣地區國際觀光旅館績效評估之研究-灰色關聯分析與資料包絡分析法應用之比較。第12卷第1期,頁67-90。
  2. 8. 史健軍(2010),灰關聯分析應用於宜蘭地區湖泊優養化之評估。蘭陽學報,第9期,頁 11-19 。
  3. 10. 陳君翔(2011)。政府推動產業聚落之成效評估-以南部生技醫療器材產業聚落發展計畫為例。國立政治大學商管專業學院碩士學位學程(AMBA)碩士論文,未出版,台北。
  4. 11. 陳峰昌、彭瓊瑜、杜啓躍(2010) 。整合層級分析、灰關聯系統理論對台灣安全衛生管理系統建置績效評估之研究。危機管理學刊,第6卷1期,頁15-24。
  5. 13. 張國忠(2012)。績效考核制度成效之評估-某生技醫療公司之個案研究。中興大學高階經理人碩士在職專班碩士論文,未出版,台中。
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