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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 51 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.沈彥伶(民 97)。國際觀光管咖啡廳服務人員休閒阻礙因素之研究。明新科技大學休閒事業管理研究所。服務創新國際研討會。
  2. 2.葉曉蒨(民 94)。運動贊助之公關效益與顧客權益關聯性之研究。私立淡江大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  3. 6.賴靜茹(民 92)。品牌關係品質與顧客權益之實證研究─以台中百貨公司為例。私立靜宜大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,未出版,台中縣。
  4. 1.Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C. & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53-65.
  5. 2.Azaddin, S. & Khalifa (2004). Customer value: a review of recent literature and an integrative configuration. Management Decision, 42(5/6), 645-666.
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