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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 33 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2. 伍家德(2000),新產品開發特性與新產品開發管理機制相關之研究,東海管理評論,第2卷第1期,頁95-118。
  2. 4. 何應欽與康馨予(2010),新產品開發的供應商評量,商管科技季刊,第11卷第2期,頁265-301。
  3. 6. 杜素芳(2013)。眼鏡零售業服務創新驅動關鍵要素之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。長榮大學,台南市。
  4. 7. 林明杰、蔣宜哲與黃錦華(2007),新產品開發加速機制與新產品開發績效指標對專案成功影響之研究,科技管理學刊,第12卷第4期,頁101-144。
  5. 12. 莊立民(2002)。組織創新模式建構與實證之研究:以台灣資訊電子業為例(未出版之博士論文)。國立成功大學,台南市。
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