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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 66 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 8. 余舜德(1994)‧夜市與文化系統的空間分類‧中研院民族學研究所集刊,82,115-174。
  2. 10. 余舜德(1997)‧對立與妥協:試論夜市與國家的關係‧中央研究院民族學研究所集刊,82:115-174。
  3. 14. 林泰山(2011)‧文化創意產業創業家關鍵特質之研究‧長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班碩士論文‧台南。
  4. 18. 許玉璍(2010) ‧美容業女性創業影響因素之研究-層級分析法之運用‧長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班碩士論文‧台南。
  5. 24. 掌慶琳(2004)‧台北夜市文獻座談會紀錄,台北文獻直字,148,1-90。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 鄭明谷(2001)。新竹科學工業園區勞工運動休閒之現況調查研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2001。1-211。
  2. 呂宏進(2003)。臺灣漢民族傳統節日休閒活動之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2003。1-110。
  3. 陳宗琪(2008)。員工對工時彈性化偏好選擇之研究。政治大學勞工研究所學位論文。2008。1-117。
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