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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 108 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 5. 王珊瑜(2007),台北市小型安養護機構老人認知功能之探討:簡易智能狀態量表(MMSE)之運用,國立台灣大學社會工作學研究所,碩士論文。
  2. 6. 王瀅筑、陳炳堯、朱僑麗(2009)。園藝活動對養護機構住民身心功能之影響。長期照護雜誌,13(3),325-337。
  3. 7. 朱哲生、葉慶輝(2010)。老人憂鬱症。家庭醫學與基層醫療,25(6),226-233。
  4. 8. 何淑熙、利菊秀(2005)。社會經濟因素與生活型態對台灣地區中老年人持續健康的影響分析。嶺東學報,22,1-32。
  5. 9. 何長珠(2008)。悲傷影響因素之初探。生死學研究,7,139-192。
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